Tag: history

For the author we must initiate the quarrel from a problematic one: Which history? Which citizenship? It is by means of these questions that we will be able to perceive the paper of History in the formation of the citizen. According to Fonseca Forest, this reflection has left of two premises for the historian: the first one, is to think History as it disciplines educative and liberating, therefore develops the paper to form the historical conscience of the men, being made possible the construction of the identity. second is to have conscience of that the debate on the meaning to teach history is processed, always, in the interior of fights cultural politics and, then it points limits, possibilities, desires and necessities historically constructed. Valley to remember, that ‘ ‘ education of History and the construction of the citizenship assumes different configurations in the diverse contexts politicians. With the Dictatorship of 64, for example, taught history had as theoretical bedding the positivista, europocntrica and linear historiografia traditional, organized on the basis of landmarks, facts of the institucional politics in a chronological sequence causal.’ ‘ The author says. With this method of education history not only excludes the pupil of the process of construction of the knowledge, but also of the formation of citizenship, while subject social.

In summary, all the ideas descutidas here, are of extreme importance for we while future historians and educators, therefore it not only allows in them to know a little of the trajectory of the education of History in Brazil, but also it takes to reflect us it on the paper of History in the formation of the citizen. Thus, only the education of History directed toward the research, analyzes critical of the different experiences human beings and the problematizao, can guarantee a process of teach-learning of quality, compromised to the educational responsibility, politics, cultural and social of the school, that the inclusion and the rights of the citizen guarantee that they constitute a democratic society.


Today we know that areas of knowledge exist various, some are sciences, others not. 2.A border between Science and History Ciro Flamarion 2 Cardoso, as historian of world-wide reputation, always creates historiogrficos quarrels and debates, therefore it has produced books and articles that facilitate these quarrels. In its text ' ' Will be History a Science? ' ' , a quarrel starts that involves History, its theories and its methods, displaying of a clear form the questioning on the problem of the cientificidade of History, and pointing interesting examples as of the Mathematics, that are a science, where if it can prove everything with absolute certainty, whereas other sciences, called factual, can be counterfeited. In this context always valley to destine a more considerate look its theoretical production and to reflect the light of its conclusions. Not losing of sight the complexity of the subject, one time that the cientificidade of History is contested by many.

The intention is not here to carry through a deeper quarrel on the subject in question, this boarding has for limit the following purpose: to briefly characterize some aspects that in the perspective of the student of History, the question ' ' Will be History a science? ' ' , and to point the conclusions most current. Making comparisons between the biologist and the historian, we can observe the following one: the historian cannot predict the future, cannot explain the past, but only interpret it. does not have a decisive form to put to the test its alternative interpretations, whereas the biologist, however even so cannot foresee the evolution future and explain the passed one (he only can interpret), has certain advantages on the historian, as for example: to put the test its discoveries. However, Ciro Flamarion Cardoso shows its conclusion, ' ' To weigh of such advantages for the specialist in biological evolution, it continues being truth that does not exist comparable laws of the evolution to the laws of the Physics, accurately as it does not have laws of History.


In the first case, centered in the production for the great farming and, in as, subordinate to the international prices. Moreover, the demand of agricultural sorts existing in the Europe would be enters the factors boosters of the expansion of tropical products. Stolen (2004) it emphasizes the importance of the pressure of the too much European nations on Portugal and Spain, come back toward the necessity to occupy lands so that effectively &#039 had its; ' direitos' ' guaranteed; the experience of Portugal with the production of sugar in other colonies; the importance to make to produce to cover expenditures centered in the defense of new lands; the existing demand in the European nations for sugar and the existence of great capitals interested in extending the exportations, amongst others. Ally to the external factors was the politics of man power with use of slaves, demanding great amounts, especially in the cultures directed toward exportation and the existence of this available man power. However, what effectively it contributed so that had increasing appropriation of the lands, would be in the fact of that the use of great capitals predominated the too much factors ahead, in view of the necessity of vultosos resources for the transport of the slaves, purchase of necessary machineries the sugar production and the existence of the possibility of great necessary properties the production of tropical products. The Portuguese colony in America was influenced, also, for the strong dependence that Portugal was acquiring of England. Its hegemony, to the few only started to be apparent, in view of that the English, through diverse pacts had started to determine which main measures, Portugal could carry through. Bausbaum (1957), speaks of the Portuguese economic atony and its dependence in relation to England, beyond if to sobressair only in relation to the imported products. This external interference passes, also, of certain form, to determine the consolidation of a legal apparatus that happened on the internal relations.